BIO 311 – Invertebrate Zoology

Exam III: Coral Reefs - Arthropoda


Be sure you are familiar with the following terms:


Protonephridia              flame cells                                             osmoconformer/regulator

Diploblastic/triploblastic                                                            mesenchyme

Totipotent                     stylet                                                    symbiosis

Bursa                           gonopore                                              vitellarium/germarium

Hypodermic impregnation                                                         endoparasitic/exoparasitic

Zooids                          opisthaptor                                           scolex/proglottids                     

Archetype                    bilateral/radial symmetry                        radula

Periostracum, nacreaous and prismatic layer                              afferent/efferent vessel

Mantle                          nephridia                                              odontopore

Retractor muscles         gill/ctenidium                                         eversible gland of radula

Protosytle                     velum/veliger larva                                hecocotylus

Glochidium larva           spermatophore                                     hermaphrodite/gonochorist

Protandric vs. simultaneous hermaphrodite                                columella

Dextral/sinistral operculum                                            chitin

Umbo                           cephalization                                         deposit feeding

Pen                              chromatophores with iridocytes bioluminescence

Ink sac                         metamerism                                          tagmata

Acron                           prostomium                                          pygidium

Crop/gizzard                 calciferous glands                                  chloragogen cells

Hemoglobin/chlorocruorin/hemerythirin/hemocyanin       parapodia

Notopodium/neuropodium                                                        biramous

Setae                            commensalism                                      regeneration     

Epitoky                        swarming                                              clitellum

Hirudin             dioecious                                              phermones vs. hormones

Chromosome diminution                                                           dauer larva

Eutely                           amphid/phasmid                                    cuticle

Ecdysone                     prosoma                                               carapace

Exoskeleton                  spiracles/trachea/book lungs                  hemolymph

Hemocoel                     sinuses                                                  ostia

Chelicerae                    pedipalps                                              pedicel

Spinnerets                    cephalothorax                                       rostrum

Antennules                    antennae                                               pleopods

Uropods                       X-organ                                               parthenogenesis

Nauplius larva               zoea larvae                               internal vs. external fertilization

Resilin                          thrust/lift                                               campaniform sensialla

Lamellar muscles          parasitoid                                             hemimetabolous

Holometabolous           incomplete vs. complete metamorphosis

Diapause                      corpora allata                                       mandibles

Maxillae/second maxillae                                                           labium/labrum



General Topics of which you should know:


1.      What two organisms tend to be the most “important” in terms of reef formation?

2.      Describe how a reef forms over time.

3.      What advantages do flatworms have in regards to their “flat” structure?  What disadvantages?

4.      Describe how various platyhelminthes feed.

5.      What is the relationship between flatworm size and density and energy/metabolic simplicity?

6.      Describe how flatworms regenerate; tie this in with what you learned from our lab experiment.

7.      What are the different types of platyhelminthes?

8.      Describe how flatworms reproduce.

9.      When do you expect different types of eggs to be made with turbellarians? With arthropods?

10.  What are the characteristics of the Platyhelminthes?  What are the different classes that fall under this phylum?

11.  Describe the molluscan archetype.

12.  One of the defining characteristics is the shell.  Describe the various layers of the shell.  What can we tell about a mollusk based upon lines in the shell?  Why are cephalopods considered molluscs if they have no external shell?

13.  Explain how the ctnenidia of molluscs work (and describe how they are designed).  What various roles do they serve?

14.  Explain how countercurrent exchange occurs in a gill.

15.  Explain how molluscs feed.

16.  What various modifications of the radula do we find?

17.  Compare and contrast an open circulatory system to a closed circulatory system

18.  What is the largest class of Molluscs?

19.  Over evolutionary time, as the shell of the gastropods changed, what consequences did it have on their bodies?  What other changes happened to the shell over time?

20.  What are the three classes of Annelids?  Give explains of species that would fall in each class.

21.  Explain why annelids have more flexibility and control in their movements than a flatworm or a nematode given that all of these animals have hydrostatic skeletons.

22.  What segments are the oldest in annelids?  How does this make sense?

23.  How can you tell if an annelid is a selective or non-selective feeder?

24.  Explain how an earthworm feeds.

25.  Explain how the spectrophotometer is used to understand how earthworm blood works (from lab).  What did your results of oxygenated vs. deoxygenated blood mean?

26.  What are the similarities and differences between annelid, arthropod, and vertebrate (e.g. human) blood?

27.  What general characteristics do all annelids share?

28.  Explain how annelids reproduce (you may want to use a few examples such as an earthworm and a leech and a polychaete).

29.  Describe the body plan of a “typical” nematode.

30.  Is it more common to be a parasitic nematode or a free-living nematode?

31.  Why are free-living nematodes so important to us and ecological systems in general?

32.  What factors determine the distribution of free-living nematodes?

33.  Explain how nematodes reproduce (briefly).

34.  Why do we say nematodes are closely related to arthropods?

35.  Explain the form and function of spider webs

36.  What type of spiders has good eyesight? Poor eyesight?

37.  What are the basic zones to a spider web?

38.  Besides spiders, what other types of animals can spin silk?  How does this silk differ from that of a spider?

39.  What roles do silk serve for spiders?

40.  Explain in detail how an arachnid’s book lungs work?

41.  What are the defining characteristics of an arachnid?

42.  What are some of the hunting strategies employed by spiders?

43.  Why do arthropods need to communicate using pheromones?  Use some specific examples (from Nikki’s presentation)

44.  Why do hermit crabs need to find a discarded molluscan shell?

45.  What does the body of a hermit crab look like to fit into a gastropod shell?

46.  How does a hermit crab select a shell?  What has molded their choice of shells over evolutionary time?

47.  Why are copepods ecologically significant?

48.  What is a tongue worm?  Why is it considered an arthropod?  What are the defining characteristics of an arthropod in general?

49.  How did wings evolve in insects?

50.  What are the major characteristics that make flight possible?

51.  Explain how insects fly.  What is the difference between synchronous flying and asynchronous flying?

52.  Why are insects so successful?

53.  Describe the haplo-diploid system of eusocial insects.  Make sure you can explain why it makes more sense for a female to take care of her sister than her own offspring.